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Development of strength and strength endurance in Kettlebell Sport
Strength or Endurance, development of strength and strength endurance in Kettlebell Sport.
by Sergey Rudnev,IKSFA Master Coach,E.Lopatin,MSWC
Development of strength and strength endurance in the Kettlebell Sport.Department of physical training and sports of the Far Eastern Military Institute. Lopatin, E., MSWC, Rudnev S,. MSWC,IKSFA Master Coach
Development of strength and strength endurance by most authors noted as a priority in the Kettlebell Sport lifting (Nikolaev, 1984, 1986, 1997; Romashin, 1991.1992; Polyakov, 1988, Zaitsev ,l 1991; Vinogradov, 1988; Baymuhametov, 1995; Vorotyntsev, 2002 etc.), while strength endurance play a major role. Most of the authors agree that the multiple times repeated performance of lifting kettlebells is the result of development of strength endurance. As for the strength, the researchers of Kettlebell Sport lifting mostly agreed that development of strength necessary up to a "sufficient" limit. As noted in his research Voropaev (1997) Strength capabilities of Kettlebell Sport lifter, member of the national team are on the level of strength capabilities of Olympic weightlifter II Rank. According to Voropaev this is "sufficient" limit of the development of strength. I can admit that there are weight categories in Kettlebell Sport and the difference in strength capabilities of light and heavy weights is tremendous. However, this author for some reason did not take into account. In other words, in order to raise kettlebells of the same weight (32 kg) athlete of weight category to 60 kg and over 90 kg is necessary to develop strength,which is significantly differed in absolute value (?). A similar error repeated by Romashin (1992) when trying to determine the testing loads of strength development. Athletes of weight category 80 kg were offered to perform squat with a barbell 110-115 kg as a prerequisite for the implementation of the Rank of Candidate Master of Sports. There Romashin (1992) again relates the growth result in Kettlebell Sport lifting with the development of precisely the maximum strength. In the manual Vorotyntsev (2002) brought an examples of the basic indicators of strength and endurance, to be achieved in the process of general physical preparation (GPP) training for athletes specializing in Kettlebell Sport lifting:
Bench press Required – 80 kg, Lopatin – 65 kg
Deadlift Required – 110 kg, Lopatin – 90 kg
Squat Required – 110 kg, Lopatin – 80 kg
Press of 32 kg Kettlebell Required – 1-2 times, Lopatin – 0 times
Running 3000 m Required – Junior ranking, Lopatin – Adult ranking.
As seen from the table, world record holder has not passed any of the tests on the strength and "can not count" on good results! Such errors are understandable, then, none of the researchers of Kettlebell Sport lifting was able to identify characteristics of strength component of training Kettlebell Sport lifter. Therefore, the mere selection of testing load (exercises with a barbell) is wrong. Squats with a barbell not correspond to the model of Jerk in Kettlebell Sport and can not be used for a test. Therefore, it is not surprising that athletes of lighter weight categories, who’s exceeding the number of lifts for the Rank of CMS of weight category 80 kg is not able to perform a barbell squat 110 kg! The mechanism of development of the necessary efforts in Kettlebell Sport lifting is formed by an explosive type - giving the necessary acceleration of kettlebels of constant weight on the certain height, while the amplitude of the under-squat (different angles of knee flexion) is much shorter than in Olympic weightlifting, but time of a cycle (jerk) is also much shorter (Gomonov, 2000). Typically, fast and low-endurance muscle fibers (white fibers) are not included in the work, Kettlebell Sport lifter activities are carried out with slow and fast high- endurance muscle fibers (red fibers). In Olympic weightlifting the contrary, the main work done by fast low-endurance (white) fibers. Now it becomes clear that for the Kettlebell Sport lifting the most important fibers are strength endurance fibers, which means that one should choose the tests for determining the development of strength endurance of muscles, in other words, tests which allow to define the strength endurance component. . Force output is delivered by synchronization of the activity of endurance muscle fibers, which is determined not by the strength of the nerve impulse but its frequency. This synchronization of endurance motor units can develop the necessary force in Kettlebell Sport lifting, which explains the moderate hypertrophy of Kettlebell Sport lifters compared to Olympic weightlifters. Moreover the duration of competitive activity in Kettlebell Sport lifting of high oxidative activity dominates over glycolytic. Thus, the importance of strength component to produce force output In Kettlebell Sport lifting is not determinative, as indicated by most researchers. Localization of muscle strength of Kettlebell Sport lifter is defined by distribution of slow and fast twitch fibers which means that the development of strength required a level not exceeding 70% of maximum voluntary force (MVF) (Platonov, 1997). As can be seen, the strength in Kettlebell Sport lifting is of interest not in pure form but in combination with strength endurance. Strength endurance is certainly one of the major qualities of Kettlebell Sport lifter. However and here should be clarification of certain issues. The problem of the structure of strength endurance by the figurative definition of Verhoshansky (1977) is a "white spot" in the theory of sports training. The presence of conflicting data observed when trying to identify the strength endurance as the variety of physical qualities. For example, some authors (Kuznetsov, 1972; Jaeger, Oelshlegel, 1975; Matveev, 1977; Verhoshansky, 1977; Laputin, Oleshko, 1982; Platonov, 1984) include stamina (strength endurance) to strength qualities, others (Nabatnikova, 1983; Gurevich, 1976; Kuramshin, 1980) – endurance qualities. Vinogradov defines endurance as the ability for a prolong period of time to perform physical activity with a specific power output. As we have seen, the strength required does not exceed 70% of maximum voluntary force or endurance muscle fibers. Duration of exercise required of strength endurance, usually do not exceed 2-3 minutes (Platonov, 1997). Strength endurance in pure form entails a repetition of movements continuously (stopping only for fixed positions)) of less than 40 lifts (Myakinchenko, in 1997). In Kettlebell Sport lifting pauses between reps can reach 10-20 seconds, and number of reps is often above one hundred. Under these conditions the importance of recovery processes is critical.. The higher the rate of recovery processes, the greater the competitive exercise tempo, allowing athlete to complete 10 minutes of competition time. The athletes who have well-developed strength-speed (strength endurance) have shown good results in the approaches to the maximum number of reps for 30-60 seconds. In this case works was performed in a mode of continuous muscle contraction, while the tempo rate of 30-40 repetitions per minute (i.e., mode strength endurance), and with the main energy source is glycogen in the muscles and liver.. However in the 5-minute test these athletes are inferior to the athletes with well developed endurance, not to even to mention the 10 minutes of competitive rules., where the work is carried out by oxidative reactions, and the main source of energy is coming when oxidative capability of slow twitch(red)fibers. . Thus, strength endurance is not a determining factor in Kettlebell Sport lifting. It only allows you to perform at fast tempo for 1-3 minutes. For Kettlebell Sport lifting is required endurance which allow to perform 10 minutes of competition time.. Therefore, we should talk about the special endurance, which is necessary to work with pauses between repetitions sufficient for recovery to the next repetition (tempo of snatch, jerk)) (Lopatin, 2000; Romashin, 1991). Exceeding the optimum tempo for the athlete and is the main cause of fatigue and premature termination of the 10-minutes set, rather than lack of development of strength endurance, mental strength or motivation, as noted in their studies Vinogradov (1998). So far we have not discovered any research related to characteristics of the special endurance in Kettlebell Sport, although the importance of this category of physical qualities is obvious. During the research Vinogradov (1998) revealed the dependence of improving Kettlebell Sport Rank for low level Ranks and the level of general, special, strength endurance, but priority is given to the development of strength endurance; which also has been in recommendations by Voropayev (1986) for organizing the training process, where special endurance generally seen as a strength endurance. From the foregoing it is clear that a competitive tempo is strictly individual and depends on the weight class of athlete, his skills, stage a multi-year and annual training.(micro, macro cycles). In any case, the pace(tempo) must ensure lifting capabilities within the 10 minutes competition set. According to Zatsiorskiy (1982) stable pace(tempo) of implementation of competition peformance is an important indicator for the achievement of high results in cyclic sports. Vinogradov (1988) indicates that the Master of sports able to perform of 7-10 minutes, while supporting competition tempo, Candidates for master of sports- 5-6,accordingly, First Rank athletes even less, but today, athletes of any qualifications tend to use all the allotted time, choosing the optimal tempo for themselves. As for the allegations Voropayev (1986, 1988), the stimulating effect of rapid (up to 27 lifts per minute), then we dare to disagree. As already noted, the rapid pace(tempo) causes premature fatigue, involving inefficient white fibers, and a significant portion of the energy produced by glycolytic ("wasteful") through the formation of oxygen debt. Therefore, causing athletes to stop competition set peremature and no mental force of willpower can not resist fatigue. Here Voropaev indicates optimal average rate (19 reps per minute), but today this rate in Kettlebell Sport lifting doesn’t exist. Highest achievement in clean and jerk for 10 minutes, 175 lifts.(I.Denisov) It becomes clear why athletes who use an "average" rate of not doing all the time limit - it is simply impossible. A misguided attempt to set the pace (tempo) without analysis of strain put on functional systems is erroneous.. In this issue we agree with Myakinchenko (1997) on the careful usage of interval training methods in the mode of glycolytic energy production. Therefore the most effective method of training slow twitch muscle fibers steady mode, mode of stable oxygen supply. This regime may be achieved when working at the level 80-90% of the maximum oxygen consumption,(VO2 Max) or heart rate HR 170-190 beats per minute (Platonov, 1997; Myakinchenko, 1997). Focusing on heart rate can easily determine the optimal regime of training load, the optimal rate. Zaitsev (1991) recommends a range of HR training load of 160-180 beats per minute; however during the competition HR may exceed 190 beats per minute, it is necessary that work of such intensity should be included in a training program in the preparatory period. Thus, the general tendency of Kettlebell Sport lifting today is determined mainly by the development of overall (general)l endurance, and on its basis, special endurance rather than strength and strength endurance, as claimed by a majority of authors of well-known Manuals of Kettlebell Sport lifting of weight-lifting (Shvydkoi, 2002). The fact of victories and records of the former World champion’s cross-country skiers, rowers, long distance runners is the major prove of importance of development of special endurance. These types of athletes have shown better results in groups of Kettlebel Sport training at our institute. The development of general endurance during general physical preparation (GPP) considered by Vinogradov (1998). Development of general endurance in the initial stage of preparation, NM Makarov (1976), AV Chernyak, Zh.T. Butinvinov (1978) is considered one of the priorities. The authors note that the optimal combination of the training process of special physical preparation (SPP) and general physical preparation, (GPP) aimed at the development of general endurance, not only allow growth of sport performance, but also increase the level of general and special endurance. Modern Kettlebell Sport lifting is notable for high achievements and high demands for the development of general and special endurance. Today, without these qualities it’s not possible to show good results and work out all 10 minutes of competition set. Therefore, using the old methods and experience of Kettlebell Sport lifting 80-ies in modern conditions, is questionable.. We offer new priorities - the development of special endurance on the basis of the general and the usage of methodological experience of cyclic sports.
Translated by Aleksandr Khasin,USA
P.S.Eugene Lopatin,MSWC, Russia record holder in weight category to 60 kg.-109 jerks. Развитие силы и силовой выносливости в гиревом спорте. Преподаватели кафедры физической подготовки и спорта Дальневосточного военного института. Лопатин Е.В., мастер спорта России международного класса по гиревому спорту, Руднев С.Л., мастер спорта России международного класса по гиревому спорту.
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